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Thread: Duke The Menace

  1. #1

    Duke The Menace

    Duke the menace is here, trash talk is with me, were you expecting me when you made this thread?

    I sold my sofa to avoid the little naps and so I can post "ad nausea". I have a picture to prove it.


    What a load.


    But you can post serious stuff like GPUs singing Opera with DrPop and CPUs playing Drums with Mike029. I will ring the bells with Bok and Gopher. And have load of videos to finish that you have to see, you will love all as usual

    You are Welcome to crazy November that will finish on April next year. Yeha I can see you very glad with that.


    Activity Duke much more Crazy than usual

    This Duke is very dangereux and completly crazy.

    Do you know that guy?

    Yeha he is completely crazy. Beware...


    Keep safe.

    With me


  2. #2
    Free-DC Semi-retire gopher_yarrowzoo's Avatar
    Join Date
    Mar 2002
    Location
    Santa Ana, CA
    Posts
    3,982
    Run people while you have the chance .... :P
    Semi-retired from Free-DC...
    I have some time to help.....
    I need a new laptop,but who needs a laptop when you have a phone...


  3. #3
    Nice Gopher

    Speak when you are angry--and you will make the best speech you'll ever regret.

  4. #4
    The flowers dont understand me ...

    The guys dont ever understand me ...

    She never understood me ...

    But I love all the same ...

    Winds of change.

    Windy Duke

  5. #5


    I am thanks for asking.

  6. #6


    Duke caught on the kitchen in the middle of the night.

  7. #7
    I will post in here, I hope this can make you feel something about 2011 ...


    The Power of Images

    How much images are in our hearts and memories and for each a thousand words and an hundred thoughts.



    A girl in isolation for radiation screening looks at her dog through a window in Nihonmatsu, Japan on March 14.



    A mother comforts her son in Concord, Alabama, near his house which was completely destroyed by a tornado in April.



    Slain Navy SEAL Jon Tumilson's dog "Hawkeye" lies next to his casket during funeral services in Rockford, Iowa. Tumilson was one of 30 American soldiers killed in Afghanistan on August 6 when their helicopter was shot down during a mission to help fellow troops who had come under fire.



    84-year-old Dorli Rainey was pepper sprayed during a peaceful march in Seattle, Washington. She would have been thrown to the ground and trampled, but luckily a fellow protester and Iraq vet was there to save her. (Joshua Trujillo / seattlepi.com)



    Mihag Gedi Farah, a seven-month-old child, is held by his mother in a field hospital of the International Rescue Committee in the town of Dadaab, Kenya. The baby has since made a full recovery.



    A woman cries while sitting on a road amid the destroyed city of Natori, Miyagi Prefecture in northern Japan after the massive earthquake and tsunami.



    Members of the national security team receive an update on the mission against Osama bin Laden in the Situation Room of the White House on May 1.



    A whirpool forms off the Japanese coast after the tsunami on March 11.



    Friends and loved ones gather at the Oslo cathedral to mourn 93 victims killed in twin terror attacks from a bombing in downtown Oslo and a mass shooting on Utoya island on July 22.



    Robert Peraza, who lost his son Robert David Peraza in 9/11, pauses at his son’s name at the North Pool of the 9/11 Memorial.

  8. #8
    28 Remarkable Pictures of the Blue Angels






















































  9. #9
    A video I made for last Christmas, not to forget the reason we look up for that date.


  10. #10






    I am ready

    Duke

  11. #11

  12. #12

  13. #13
    Aha and Bonsoir Paris.


  14. #14
    USA best Pictures.
    New-york, The Empire State





























































































































































  15. #15

  16. #16
    More a bit of New York
    USA best Pictures.

    New-york, The Empire State















































  17. #17
    For a day of sorrow.

    I do not like my state of mind
    I'm bitter, querulous, unkind.
    I hate my legs, I hate my hands,
    I do not yearn for lovelier lands.
    I dread the dawn's recurrent light;
    I hate to go to bed at night.
    I snoot at simple, earnest folk.
    I cannot take the gentlest joke.
    I find no peace in paint or type.
    My world is but a lot of tripe.
    I'm disillusioned, empty-breasted.
    For what I think, I'd be arrested.
    I am not sick, I am not well.
    My quondam dreams are shot to hell.
    My soul is crushed, my spirit sore;
    I do not like me any more.
    I cavil, quarrel, grumble, grouse.
    I ponder on the narrow house.
    I shudder at the thought of men...
    I'm due to fall in love again.

  18. #18
    Nov 19, 1863:
    Lincoln delivers Gettysburg Address


    On November 19, 1863, at the dedication of a military cemetery at Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, during the American Civil War, President Abraham Lincoln delivers one of the most memorable speeches in American history. In just 272 words, Lincoln brilliantly and movingly reminded a war-weary public why the Union had to fight, and win, the Civil War.

    The Battle of Gettysburg, fought some four months earlier, was the single bloodiest battle of the Civil War. Over the course of three days, more than 45,000 men were killed, injured, captured or went missing. The battle also proved to be the turning point of the war: General Robert E. Lee's defeat and retreat from Gettysburg marked the last Confederate invasion of Northern territory and the beginning of the Southern army's ultimate decline.

    Charged by Pennsylvania's governor, Andrew Curtin, to care for the Gettysburg dead, an attorney named David Wills bought 17 acres of pasture to turn into a cemetery for the more than 7,500 who fell in battle. Wills invited Edward Everett, one of the most famous orators of the day, to deliver a speech at the cemetery's dedication. Almost as an afterthought, Wills also sent a letter to Lincoln—just two weeks before the ceremony—requesting "a few appropriate remarks" to consecrate the grounds.

    At the dedication, the crowd listened for two hours to Everett before Lincoln spoke. Lincoln's address lasted just two or three minutes. The speech reflected his redefined belief that the Civil War was not just a fight to save the Union, but a struggle for freedom and equality for all, an idea Lincoln had not championed in the years leading up to the war. This was his stirring conclusion: "The world will little note, nor long remember what we say here, but it can never forget what they did here. It is for us the living, rather, to be dedicated here to the unfinished work which they who fought here have thus far so nobly advanced. It is rather for us to be here dedicated to the great task remaining before us—that from these honored dead we take increased devotion to that cause for which they gave the last full measure of devotion—that we here highly resolve that these dead shall not have died in vain—that this nation, under God, shall have a new birth of freedom—and that government of the people, by the people, for the people, shall not perish from the earth."

    Reception of Lincoln's Gettysburg Address was initially mixed, divided strictly along partisan lines. Nevertheless, the "little speech," as he later called it, is thought by many today to be the most eloquent articulation of the democratic vision ever written.


    Text of Gettysburg Address

    Four score and seven years ago our fathers brought forth on this continent a new nation, conceived in liberty, and dedicated to the proposition that all men are created equal.

    Now we are engaged in a great civil war, testing whether that nation, or any nation, so conceived and so dedicated, can long endure. We are met on a great battle-field of that war.

    We have come to dedicate a portion of that field, as a final resting place for those who here gave their lives that that nation might live. It is altogether fitting and proper that we should do this.

    But, in a larger sense, we can not dedicate, we can not consecrate, we can not hallow this ground. The brave men, living and dead, who struggled here, have consecrated it, far above our poor power to add or detract.

    The world will little note, nor long remember what we say here, but it can never forget what they did here. It is for us the living, rather, to be dedicated here to the unfinished work which they who fought here have thus far so nobly advanced.

    It is rather for us to be here dedicated to the great task remaining before us—that from these honored dead we take increased devotion to that cause for which they gave the last full measure of devotion—that we here highly resolve that these dead shall not have died in vain—that this nation, under God, shall have a new birth of freedom—and that government of the people, by the people, for the people, shall not perish from the earth.


    Shortly after Everett's well-received remarks, Lincoln spoke for only a few minutes. With a "few appropriate remarks", he was able to summarize the war in just ten sentences.

    Despite the historical significance of Lincoln's speech, modern scholars disagree as to its exact wording, and contemporary transcriptions published in newspaper accounts of the event and even handwritten copies by Lincoln himself differ in their wording, punctuation, and structure. Of these versions, the Bliss version, written well after the speech as a favor for a friend, is viewed by many as the standard text. Its text differs, however, from the written versions prepared by Lincoln before and after his speech. It is the only version to which Lincoln affixed his signature, and the last he is known to have written.

  19. #19
    The beauty of simplicity. From Portugal to you. in HD.


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  21. #21
    We are starting a small stomp on NFS for about a week (12 to 20th December) each team for itself. I am inviting the Free-DC friends to crunch the project on this time and help improving the output of the project.

    Please join us from 12 to 20 December at NFS crunching for Free-DC at the project. Thanks in advance.
    _________________
    Friends are like diamonds and diamonds are forever.

  22. #22
    There is no need for temples, no need for complicated philosophies. My brain and my heart are my temples; my philosophy is kindness.

    The purpose of our lives is to be happy.

    Love and compassion are necessities, not luxuries. Without them humanity cannot survive.

    If you can, help others; if you cannot do that, at least do not harm them.

    Be kind whenever possible. It is always possible.

    Old friends pass away, new friends appear. It is just like the days. An old day passes, a new day arrives. The important thing is to make it meaningful: a meaningful friend - or a meaningful day.

    This is my simple religion. There is no need for temples; no need for complicated philosophy. Our own brain, our own heart is our temple; the philosophy is kindness.

    Happiness is not something ready made. It comes from your own actions.

    Sleep is the best meditation.

    I find hope in the darkest of days, and focus in the brightest. I do not judge the universe.


    Dalai Lama




    The Dalai Lama is a high lama in the Gelug or "Yellow Hat" school of Tibetan Buddhism, founded by Tsongkhapa (1357–1419). The name is a combination of the Sino-Mongolian word dalai meaning "Ocean" and the Tibetan word བླ་མ་ bla-ma (with a silent "b") meaning "guru, teacher".

    According to Tibetan Buddhist doctrine, the Dalai Lama is the rebirth in a line of tulkus who are metaphorically considered to be manifestations of the bodhisattva of compassion, Avalokiteśvara. The Dalai Lama is often thought to be the leader of the Gelug School, but this position belongs officially to the Ganden Tripa, which is a temporary position appointed by the Dalai Lama who, in practice, exerts much influence. The line of Dalai Lamas began as a lineage of spiritual teachers; the 5th Dalai Lama assumed political authority over Tibet.

    For certain periods between the 17th century and 1959, the Dalai Lamas sometimes directed the Tibetan government, which administered portions of Tibet from Lhasa. The 14th Dalai Lama remained the head of state for the Central Tibetan Administration ("Tibetan government in exile") until his retirement on March 14, 2011. He has indicated that the institution of the Dalai Lama may be abolished in the future, and also that the next Dalai Lama may be found outside Tibet and may be female. The Chinese government rejected this and asserted that only it has the authority to select the next Dalai Lama.

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  24. #24
    All that we do return to us.



    That place is mine, mine mine ...


  25. #25
    History of Lisbon I

    Lisbon is one of the oldest cities in Europe, having been founded over three millennia. It along with Setúbal, Alcacer do Sal and some cities in the Algarve of Portugal's oldest and also the second oldest capital of the European Union, after Athens, older than Rome for four centuries.

    His story circulates around its strategic position at the mouth of the largest river of the Iberian Peninsula, the Tagus, its natural harbor to be best for the refueling of boats that trade between the North Sea and the Mediterranean, besides its proximity in the far south and west of Europe, with new continents Saharan Africa and America.

    Prehistory

    There are traces of human occupation in the area that is now Lisbon's many thousands of years ago, attracted by the river Tagus. The first human inhabitants of the region would have been Neanderthals, extinct for over 30,000 years by the arrival of modern man to the Peninsula. During the Neolithic period, the peoples of the Iberian West are among the pioneers in the construction and dissemination of religious function of megaliths, and did so in the region, like other peoples of Atlantic Europe: dolmens, menhirs and cromlechs have been common and some are still here.

    Origins: The Oestrimni and Ofiússa; Tartéssicos, Phoenicians and Celts

    Legend has it that the popular and romantic city of Lisbon was founded by the mythical hero Odysseus. The Oestrimnios are given as the first known indigenous people of Portugal. Oestremni mean (the people) far west. They extended their territory of Galicia to the Algarve. The first documented invasion occurred long before the birth of Christ, when Ofis and other tribes entered the Iberian peninsula and colonized the fertile lands of Oestreminis, near the rivers Douro and Tagus River.

    Recently archaeological finds were made near the Castle of Sao Jorge and Lisbon Cathedral evidence that the city may have been founded or visited by the Phoenicians around 1200 BC, and now there previously, they traded with and was related. At this time the Phoenicians traveled to the Isles of Scilly and Cornwall, in Britain, to buy tin to the natives.

    The Sea of ​​Straw or Tagus estuary is the best natural harbor in the river route and an important route for trade in food and metals with the tribes of the interior, having been theorized, perhaps precisely because of this, the foundation of a colony called Alis Ubbo that the Phoenician language means "safe harbor" or "mild cove" (and probably goddaughter of the great city of Tyre, Lebanon). The colony extended from the hill of what are now the Castle and Cathedral, to the river, they called Daghi or Taghi (meaning "good fishing" in Phoenician).

    Another theory holds the origin of its name in toponymy Celtic or pre-Celtic river Tejo. In its original name, or Lisso Lucio, would have been added the suffix Tartéssico.

    With the development of Carthage, a Phoenician colony, control or business contact with narrower Olisipo went to that city. For centuries, Phoenicians and Carthaginians have developed or established relationships with the city from what was a simple trading post for commerce in the northern seas, to an important market where they exchanged their products manufactured by metals, salt fish and salt from the region and the tribes contacted via the Tagus river. The horses, ancestors the current Lusitanian horses were already so famous in the Mediterranean for its speed, and Pliny claimed that the mares Tagus should be fertilized by the wind.

    The early Jews (Hebrews) may have arrived with the Phoenicians, their neighbors. The Hebrew is virtually identical to the Phoenician and it was rare that the boat was not carrying Phoenician merchants or members of the Kingdom of Israel.

    With the arrival of the Celts, they mingled with the Iberians local people, giving rise to Celtic-speaking tribes of the region, or Conni Cinetes the Saefes and Cempsi.

    The ancient Greeks were probably at the mouth of the Tagus a trading post for some time, but his conflict with the Carthaginians throughout the Mediterranean undoubtedly led to its abandonment due to the greater power of Carthage in the region at that time.

    Moreover, the suffix "ippo" (ipo) is characteristic of influence areas tartéssica or turdetana.

    The gods Aracus, carneus, and Bandiarbariaicus Coniumbricenses were venerated in "Lisbon" in pre-Roman, by Turduli the region.

    Olissipo: Roman Lisbon

    Olissipo allied to the Romans when they led by Decimus Junius Brutus, sought to conquer the Lusitano and other peoples of the Northwest Peninsular. The townspeople fought alongside the Legions against these Celtic tribes. In exchange was awarded the title of Roman citizens and the city wide autonomy as Roman Municipality. Was included in the province of Lusitania, headed by Emerita Augusta.

    The town was located between Castle Hill and Low, but the more riverine areas were still submerged at that time Tagus. Olissipo in Roman times was an important commercial center, making the link between the Mediterranean and northern provinces. Its main products were the garum, a fish sauce luxury, the salt and the famous Lusitanian horses.

    The city was a major center of the introduction and development of Christianity in the Iberian Peninsula. The first bishop was St. Gens Lisbon.

    Invasions and the Germans

    The degeneration of the Empire, and feudalization society led to the first Roman invasions of Germanic peoples, Huns and others. Initially accepted as settlers in desertified land by terrible epidemics that killed much of the population at that time (probably of Smallpox and Measles), quickly became on military expeditions for purposes of plunder and conquest.

    At the beginning of the fifth century the Vandals (who then retire to North Africa) take Olissipo, followed by the Alans. In 419 Olissipo was looted and burned by the Goths Tribal King Walia, Remismundo won Lisbon in 468 with the help of a Spanish-Roman Lusidius (a Lisbon citizen), and finally in 469 is integrated in the United Suevo whose capital was Braga. After the invasion of the Visigoths, they settle in Toledo and after several wars during the sixth century, conquered the Suevi, unifying the Iberian Peninsula, including the city they called Ulishbona.

    During this troubled time, Lisbon loses political ties with Constantinople, but not commercial. Merchants Greeks, Syrians, Jews and others from the East, form communities that exchange local products with the Byzantine Empire, Asia and India.

  26. #26
    History of Lisbon II


    Al-Ushbuna: Lisbon Muslim

    After three centuries of plundering, looting and loss of dynamic commercial Ulishbuna would be little more than a village at the beginning of the seventh century. This is where, taking advantage of a civil war Hispanic Visigothic kingdom, the Arabs led by Tariq invade the Iberian Peninsula with its Moorish troops in 711. Olishbuna was conquered by the troops of Abdelaziz ibn Musa, one of the sons of Tariq, as well as the rest of the West.

    Again Lisbon, known by the Arabs as al-Ushbuna, becomes a major commercial and administrative center for the lands along the Tagus, gathering their products and exchanging them for the Mediterranean Arab products, particularly Morocco, Tunisia, Egypt, Syria and Iraq. On current estimates the city would have at its peak in the tenth century, more than 100,000 inhabitants, and Constantinople, Thessaloniki, Cordoba and Seville, was one of the largest cities in Europe, many times larger than Paris and London, which at full Age Average people would have just 5-10000.

    Most of the people took the Arabic language and the Muslim minority invader that installs itself as elite. The Christian population, Mozarabic, with its own Bishop follows the Mozarabic rite of Visigothic traditions, speakers of Arabic or a variety of Vulgar Latin, the Mozarabic, romance similar to spoken in Galicia and northern provinces, is tolerated as a in exchange dhimmi tax, the jizyah. This community Mozarabic rites and customs which followed Christian Visigothic is often rejected when it comes into contact with Catholics. Were the Mozarabic that led to the remains Lisbon St. Vincent, who became the patron of the city.

    The Jewish community that existed since the founding of the city by the Phoenicians, is greatly enhanced by the Jews settled there as merchants and financial profiting with the elevation of the prominent city and commercial hub. In addition to salt, fish and horses, traded up the spices from the Levant, medicinal herbs, dried fruit, honey and furs. The Saqaliba become part of the population and have a prominent position. The Slavic Sabur al-Saqlabi becomes, during what was known as regulus Slavic, ruler of the taifa of Badajoz, and their sons Abd al-Aziz ibn Sabur and Abd al-Malik ibn Sabur taifa rulers of Lisbon.

    Al-Ushbuna is renovated and rebuilt in accordance with the standards of the Middle East: a large mosque, a castle on top of the hill (which in modified form became the Castelo de Sao Jorge), a palace for the Governor or (fortress) almedina one or urban center and a Alcacer. The Alfama district grows alongside the original urban core. The citadel of al-Madan, the current Almada is founded on the south bank of the river to protect the city.

    The Arabs and Berbers introduced around the city its irrigated agriculture, which is much more productive than the previous methods of dryland. The waters of the Tagus and its tributaries are used to irrigate the land in summer, producing several crops a year as lettuces and vegetables and fruits such as oranges.

    Politically, the beginning, the city is part of the Umayyad Caliphate of Damascus, Syria. It consists of a large chronic rebellion of Berber or "Moors" facing the elite of Saudi Arab in 740, who needed reinforcements for the Caliphate be deleted. The city is then subjected to the Caliphate of Cordoba, in which the survivors gain independence Umayyad Caliphate of the new Egyptian Abbasid.

    With the beginning of the Reconquista, the opulent al-Ushbuna is a target of the raids Christians, who plunder the city first in 796 and other occasions in the following years, led by King Alfonso II of Asturias, but the border remains north of the Douro. In 844 several dozen boats of the Vikings emerge in the Sea of ​​Straw, and Scandinavians provide the siege, conquered the city and the surrounding fields, which are for 13 days. But the Vikings eventually from the face of continued resistance townspeople led by Allah ibn Hazme.

    At the beginning of X century in al-Ushbuna arise various sects islmâmicas converts Hispanic population. These sects are forms of political organization with which the indigenous revolt against the obstacles put in his social ascent by a hierarchical system in which first came to the small elite descendants of the Prophet Muhammad, after the Arab thoroughbred, then Berbers or Moors and then Latinos Arabized and Muslim. Several Latino leaders emerge, as Ali ibn Ashra and others, who claim to be prophets or descendants of Ali (Shia) than with allies in other cities start civil wars with Sunni Arab troops. The Mozarabic were treated even worse in a way, like the Jews, sometimes suffering persecution that although regrettable to modern eyes, were a pale image of what Catholics would not only against Muslims and Jews, but even against Christians themselves not Catholics reconquered lands.

    New Viking attack following would unsuccessfully in 966. The King of Asturias Ordonho I pillage the city again in the mid-ninth century, as Alfonso VI of León in 1093, which he retained in his Kingdom of León for two years, after conquering the city of al-Santaryn or Santarém.

    With the fragmentation of the Caliphate of Cordoba around the year 1000 with the infighting, the notables of al-Ushbuna oscillate between obedience to the Taifa of Badajoz or Seville, managing to maneuver to obtain considerable autonomy. However in 1111 a new pan-Hispanic Caliphate is established by invasion from the deserts of Morocco Almoravids led by Ali ibn Yusuf, whose troops are fought only in the region of Tomar Gualdim for Parents. This lasts for a short time until the return time of the division of Taifas and autonomy and prosperity of al-Ushbuna

  27. #27
    History of Lisbon III


    Crusades: Portugal conquest Lisbon (To be Continued)

    While the Islamic Taifas South fragmented, the North was based on the Portucalense the Kingdom of León, already in full Reconquest of the Iberian Peninsula. Although based in Guimarães, the economic strength that allowed Portucalense autonomy was in Oporto (or Portucale port city of Cale, the current Gaia). The new kingdom, recently centered in Coimbra, would eventually attach Lisbon, integrating the entire line of the Tagus.

    Famous and opulent, the city would give the kingdom quite prestigious. The first attempt of Dom Afonso Henriques to conquer al-Ushbuna gave up in 1137 and failed in the face of the city walls. In 1140 leverages the Crusaders who were in Portugal to new attack that failed again.

    Only in June and July 1147, with the help of a force of crusaders more numerous, about 164 boats full of men, can be successful. While their Portuguese forces attacked the land, the Crusaders, mostly English and Normans, lured by promises of free loot, set up their siege engines like catapults and towers, and attacked both by sea and prevented the arrival of reinforcements from southern. At first encounters Muslims killing many mature Christians, and moral crusaders is affected, occurring several bloody conflicts between the various groups of Christians.

    Says The Legend, that after many attempts, a door is brake open from the Portuguese Martim Moniz and keep it open with his body allowing his companions to enter, even dying crushed by it. Most likely with the help of machines of siege, the walls are exceeded on 23 October 1147. According Osbernus, after entering the city, and the Flemish colonienses not respect the oath or word given to the king of Portugal and sack the city, acting without respect against maidens and cut the neck of the bishop of the city. After the conquest of the city, an epidemic of plague decimates thousands of lives among the Mozarabic and Muslims.

    Dom Afonso Henriques officially takes possession of the city on 1 November, when a religious ceremony, transform the great mosque of seven summits, the Aljama in the Lisbon Cathedral. The Bishop Gilbert of Hastings is a crossover English, and many of the most prominent crusaders are donated lands and titles of the region. St. Anthony was born in 1195 in the city by the name of Fernando de Bouillon.

    The King would give the Charter in 1179, and try to recover the city's trade links inaugurating a large new market or fair. The result of these efforts is that Portuguese merchants Christians or Jews not only contain some of the ancient trade links al-Ushbuna, as in Andalusia (Seville and Cádiz), and the Mediterranean to Constantinople, and open up new avenues for ports Northern Europe, Muslims rarely visited due to ideological differences. In fact the first of Lisbon Medieval Christian vocation is once again the mediation of trade between the North Sea and the Mediterranean, but thanks to advances in ocean navigation volumes are increasing. Portuguese merchants open houses in Seville, Southampton, Bruges and the Hansa cities, and Portuguese Jews continue to trade with their cousins ​​in North Africa. They change up the spices, silks and home remedies Mediterranean; gold, ivory, rice, alum, almonds and sugar bought from Arabs and Moors, along with olive oil, salt, wine, cork, honey and wax with the Portuguese textile wool or linen thin, tin, iron, dyes, amber, weapons, furs and crafts North. Are founded shipyards for the construction of commercial and military boats, which Armada is essential in protecting trade against the Saracen pirates. To meet the growing demand for increasingly large populations of Europe in the twelfth century and XIII Century, are stimulated innovations in the construction of boats, the boat that strong but clumsy pass, a synthesis of whether Christian, Viking and Arabic, for the caravel ( first reference in 1226), the first real Atlantic ship. The professions related to navigation, such as carpenters and sailors are given privileges and protection, including the creation of a Judge in Lisbon, the Alcaide of the Sea (1242).

    An indirect effect of all this dynamism Lisbon is the bane of German merchants, who did the same trade by having (a more expensive route but the only possible when the ships and their Muslim pirates controlled the south of Spain and the Straits of Gibraltar) between the Netherlands and Italy and Hansa and its ports. The Holy Roman Empire loses influence over their kingdoms, duchies and city-state constituents, and German merchants, hitherto masters of European trade, are forced to seek new markets in the east.

    Following this prosperity, and increased security in Lisbon with the final conquest of the Algarve in the thirteenth century, in 1256 Afonso III of Portugal notes the obvious and pick the largest and most powerful city of his kingdom for Capital, then moving to the Court Files and the Treasury (who were in Coimbra). Dinis, the first King to preside over all his reign in Lisbon, then create the University in 1290, which transferred to Coimbra in 1308 only due to increasing conflicts with the students of Lisbon. It is at this time that the area where today is the Palace Square is claimed from the sea via drains the already muddy terrain (river was free until the time of the conquest, but cemented due to deposits of the river). New streets are drawn, as Rua Nova, and Rossio becomes first city center, stealing that distinction to Castle Hill. Other buildings were Dinis a wall Cais da Ribeira new front against the pirates, and renovations Palace Arabic (the Alcazaba, destroyed in the 1755 earthquake) and the Cathedral

    Besides the Portuguese colonies in the cities of northern Europe, colonies of merchants from the rest of Europe set up in Lisbon, one of the most important cities in international trade. Not counting the Jews (which existed as Portuguese), the Genoese are the most numerous, followed by Venetians and other Italians, and Dutch and British. These merchants to bring Portugal new cartographic techniques and navigation techniques beyond banking, financial and otherwise known as the system of Mercantilism, plus knowledge of the origins of Asian luxury goods such as silks and spices, bringing Eastern Byzantine and Islamic .

    Politically tensions with Castile are counterbalanced with an Alliance signed in 1308, which continued uninterruptedly until today, with the main trading partner of Lisbon (and Port), England. The alliance forms one of the two sides of the Hundred Years War, on the other hand are beyond Castile France. At the time of Fernando de Portugal starts a war with Castile, and boats with cannons lisboetas are recruited as the Genoese an unsuccessful attack to Seville. In response the Spaniards lay siege to Lisbon, taking it in 1373, but are paid to retire. It is in the wake of this disaster that are built Great Walls Fernandinas Lisbon.

    Socially lived beneath all types of laborers and street merchants, as well as fishermen and farmers of vegetable gardens. This era are the various crafts Streets, in which corporations were organized mesteriais, directed by the Masters: Gold Street (silversmith); Rua da Prata (silver jewelers); Rua dos Fanqueiros; Street of the Shoemakers, Rua dos and mercers Rua dos Correeiros. These corporations were educated learners and social protection systems and control prices enjoyed by its members. The aristocracy, attracted by the court, drew up building large palaces, and played bureaucratic functions. But the most important class of Lisbon, even after gaining political functions as capital, was the merchants, the bourgeoisie that was the core strength of this commercial was the most important in Europe. They are the tycoons who control the trade city and its oligarchic County. It is because of these needs that are organized in the city professionals: bankers to coordinate the risks; men Laws to protect and handle your legal rights; experts and scientists to build their boats and navigation instruments. With his influence, can extract the Monarchy mercantilist measures that favor, and are a great impetus to explore new markets. The Company is founded Naus, a real insurance company that requires payment of fees required of all owners in exchange for sharing of losses after shipwrecks, organizing more than five hundred large ships of tycoons in town. With the increasing profits, the wealthiest merchants acquire titles of nobility, while the poorer nobles engage in trade.

    Among minorities, there were those of Jews and Muslims (Moors not only Arabs but Islamized and Latin Arabic language). There was a large Jewry occupying the parishes of St. Mary Magdalene, St. Julian and St. Nicholas, on Rua Nova and Merchants (where was the Great Synagogue). The Jews (perhaps 10% of the population, or even more) are great traders, with links to their coreligionists throughout Europe, North Africa and the Middle East, and those who do not practice the trade are a big part of the literati, such as doctors, lawyers, cartographers and specialists in the sciences or arts. Its business is fundamental to the economic vitality of the city. Sephardic Jews of Lisbon entres include big names such as Abravanel. However they are forced to live separately, forbidden to go out at night, forced to wear badges in robes and extra pay taxes, and are always the first victims in situations of popular revolts.

  28. #28
    History of Lisbon IV

    Crusades: Portugal conquest Lisbon (continuation)

    The ghetto was Mouraria correspondent for Muslims, containing the Grand Mosque. Yet there were prosperous and educated as Jews, since the Muslim elites had fled to North Africa, while the literate speakers of Portuguese Jews had no homeland. Most were workers with low skill level wages, and many Christians were slaves. They too had to use symbols in robes and pay extra taxes, and suffered the violence of the crowds. The term comes from the hick who paid excise Muslims who cultivated gardens in the city limits, the salaio; Lisboan well as the term comes from the cultivation of these plants by the Arabs, so little consumed in the North.

    However the city's prosperity would be interrupted. In 1290 occurs the first major historical earthquake, thousands of people died and many buildings are crumbling. New earthquakes recorded in 1318, 1321, 1334, 1337 and in 1344 a large part of which destroys the Cathedral and the Alcazaba, in 1346, 1356 (destroys another portion of the Cathedral), 1366, 1395 and 1404 all possibly resulting from adjustments in same flaw. Hunger arises in 1333 and in 1348 appears the first time the Black Death, which has killed half the population, with new outbreaks of lower mortality in each decade, as more people were born susceptible. These disasters destroyed in Lisbon as the rest of Europe vibrant Civilization of the Middle Ages, with its cathedrals and its universal spirit of Christianity, but paved the way for the emergence of the new civilization of Discovery and the new scientific spirit.

    Revolution

    The new chapter in the history of Lisbon born with the great revolution Crisis of 1383-85. After the death of Fernando de Portugal, the Kingdom would go to the King of Castile, John I of Castile. The great aristocrats and clerics North, owners of large estates in the South who acquired after the Reconquista, and had interests similar to those of Castilian culture with an emphasis on social distinctions based on possession of the land, in the spirit of crusade against the Moors in North Africa , and the benefits of the union of all Hispania. However these are not the interests of the merchants of Lisbon (many small gentry). For Lisbon, union with Castile mean a dilution of commercial links with Britain and the North, and also with the Middle East, as well as a diversion of attention of privileges to merchants and boat building trade and war for land armies and privileges to Noble. That's why small merchants and noblemen merchant initially supported the Master of Avis, D. John War of 1383 is at bottom a war between conservative Catholic and medieval aristocracy, and connected very similar to their counterparts Galician and Castillian, the former Portucalense centered in Minho (Except Bourgeois Porto, Lisbon ally, among other large cities personalities and North), and the wealthy merchants and pluralistic Lisbon. Nobles North had founded and conquered the country and for them the growing field of Lisbon threatened his supremacy as the alliance with the noble Castilians reestablished. For Lisbon, a city of commerce, feudal practices and land wars of Castilians were a risk to their business. Are the bourgeois who earn the fight with its British connections and huge capital: the Master of Avis is acclaimed John I of Portugal, winning the siege of Lisbon in 1384, and the Battle of Aljubarrota in leadership in 1385 against Nun'Álvares Pereira forces of Castile and the nobles of the North. The new Portuguese aristocracy is formed from merchants Lisboetas, and it is only from this date that the center is really Northern Portugal to Lisbon, Portugal becoming a sort of city-state, where almost only their interests determine the course and independence of the country.

    The new bourgeois nobles built their palaces and stately homes in the neighborhood of Santos, while others are the University buildings in Alfama, who returns to Lisbon; Carmo Church, Customs, and some of the first residential buildings throughout Europe with several floors to five. The town consists of narrow, winding streets, most of clay, where the houses alternate with gardens and orchards. The city continues to grow, and the abandonment of large irrigation techniques very productive Muslim means that you must import wheat from Castile, France, land of the Rhine and even Morocco. Lisbon is a city that grows too much for the country, and this becomes a surrounding territory similar to other commercial cities. Lisbon, Antwerp along with the Atlantic serve the same function as the trade organization that Venice, Genoa, Barcelona or Ragusa in the Mediterranean, or Hamburg, Lubeck and other Baltic. In 1417 it is forbidden to lie garbage near the Monastery of Mount Carmel and other areas of Lisbon. In 1426 another law prohibits throw garbage and let chickens loose in the streets of Lisbon under penalty of paying a fine.

    The foreign policy interests of Lisbon follows: are signed trade agreements and cooperation with the city-state of Venice trade agreement (1392), Genoa (1398), Pisa and Florence, whose merchants were already living in the city, and many of which are naturalized and become noble Portuguese. Is conquered Ceuta in 1415 to allow merchants Lisboetas better local control (and fight against pirates Saracens) of Mediterranean trade that passed north through the Pillars of Hercules and the Moroccan export wheat at better prices. Moreover, this time Ceuta received the caravans of gold and ivory trade that Lisboetas wanted to dominate, and it was feared the capture of the city by the Castilian or Aragonese rival Sevilla Barcelona. The alliance with Britain, one of its largest customers, is pursued.

  29. #29
    History of Lisbon V

    Lisbon, the Lady of the Seas (To be continued)

    Several expeditions were undertaken with Portuguese crews, which discovered the Azores, Madeira and the Canaries. Some will even argue that arrived in Brazil. These islands allow the establishment of new cities, ports, useful for exploring new markets.

    The prosperity of Lisbon is threatened when the Ottoman Empire invades and conquers the Arab territories in North Africa, Egypt and Middle East in the fifteenth century. The Turks are initially hostile to the interests of Lisbon and its allied Venice and Genoa, and the trade in spices, gold, ivory and other goods suffers heavily. The merchants of Lisbon, many descendants of Jews or Muslims with ties to North Africa, looking react to negotiate directly with the sources of these goods, without using mediators Muslims. Links from Portuguese and Maghreb Jews, and the conquest of Ceuta, allow Lisbon merchants from spying Arab merchants, discovering that gold, slaves and ivory caravans come to Morocco in the Sahara Desert, from the land of Sudan (which at that time included all the southern desert grasslands, the current Sahel), and spices such as pepper are brought into the ports of the Red Sea in Egypt from India. The new strategy of the Portuguese merchants, Christians and Jews, Italians and Portuguese-is navigate directly to the source material.

    The major driver of this objective is the Infante D. Henrique, based on the city of Tomar. Headquarters of the Order of Christ (former Templar), and a large community of Jewish merchants, the city is also very connected to Lisbon by trade in cereals and nuts (one of the main exports of Lisbon). Capital and knowledge of the East by the Knights Templar and Jews were undoubtedly fundamental to achieve the purposes of the Lisbon merchants. The Infante Dom Henrique is the booster of a project that was not what he imagined, but the merchants of Lisbon. Those that supported through monarchy taxes and customs fees, making it virtually independent of the noble territorial resources, convert them to their mercantilist purposes. The Prince Henrique is the organizer of a certain state dirigisme: the big risk and capital required for the opening of new routes need the cooperation of all merchants across the state (as today many large capital projects are undertaken internationally). The Infante Dom Henrique organizes and directs the efforts of the Portuguese ships to reach the sources of gold, ivory and slaves, that they themselves have waged inefficiently. With the capital of the Order of Christ, are founded schools sailors and concentrates resources and knowledge, the merchants Lisboetas Jews, Portuguese-Portugal-Venetian or Genoese, to achieve the objective. Several expeditions are launched in the form of contracts with some of the most influential bourgeois Lisbon, until the Gulf of Guinea is finally reached by 1460.

    At this time there is a new attempt by feudal nobles Northerners who remained, to retake control of United, frightened by the growing prosperity of the merchants lisboetas against their loss of income. The purpose is to ease the conquest of Ceuta, which opens prospects for relatively easy victories over North Africa. This company would be favorable to the nobles who serve and gain more land and tenants in Morocco, but it is contrary to the interests of the merchants and nobles-Jews of Lisbon, who would be paying extra taxes needed for expeditions and looking before investing forces and resources of the Kingdom in the discovery of new African and Asian markets and not in further increasing the power of the hostile and pro-Castilian nobility Portucalense. All fights that D. John II maintained against these nobles, with the help of merchants Lisboetas, express this underlying reality of struggle between Lisbon and the North, the former Portucale, birthplace of the nation, by the definition of the direction of the country. After several plots and incidents, in which once again the noble northerners call to aid their counterparts Castellanos, wins again Lisbon and its merchants, and the ringleaders are executed, including the Dukes of Bragança and Viseu, died in 1483 and 1484. All expansion projects are abandoned land in Africa in exchange for trade in newly discovered lands to the south. After the death of Prince Henry, when the path was already open, start up the private sector. The Lisbon merchant Fernão Gomes is the first and being recognized monopoly on African trade in 1469, in exchange for discovery of 500 kilometers of coastline to the South each year and 200,000 reais.

    The islands of Madeira and the Azores are populated, and programs for cultivating commercial products are deployed primarily to Lisbon: the cane sugar and wine. In newfound Guinea, cheap products like metal pots and tissues are exchanged for gold, ivory and slaves from factories controlled by lisboetas: the natives to move his business to trade with Europeans, but are not won since is costly. They make up the inhabitants of factories marriages with the daughters of local leaders, facilitating exchanges: the objective is profit and not colonization. The result is a boost for trade in Lisbon. In the capital appear cane sugar and Madeira wine, wheat Ceuta, musk, indigo and other dyes for clothing, cotton North Africa and significant quantities of gold from Guinea and the Gold Coast, largely missing in Europe in the late fifteenth century. Also are trafficked slaves brutally Berbers Canaries and then Africans. The first slaves are distributed by Portuguese territory, and appear the first dark-skinned Africans even in the hinterlands, the properties purchased by you. An innovative product were the peppers. These were spicy fruits grown in India (where they were taken by merchants Lisboetas) but originate from Guinea. Well this quickly monopoly Lisbon won favor in Mediterranean cuisine.

    However the best markets and products would come from another discovery, India and East. The war between the Ottoman Empire and Venice greatly increases the prices of pepper and other spices and silk brought to Italy by the Venetians, to Lisbon and thence to the rest of Europe from Egypt (who received boats from India Arabian Sea Red. To circumvent the "Turkish problem" is organized voyage of Vasco da Gama, again on the initiative of merchants Lisboetas but with regal capital, which arrives in India in 1498. Hence the merchants reach where China founded the colony trade Macau, the islands of Indonesia today, and Japan before the end of the sixteenth century. way in establishing contracts and commercial ports of call with the chiefs and kings in Angola and Mozambique. A large colonial empire is consolidated by Afonso de Albuquerque, whose gun safe and Indian Ocean ports in convenient locations for merchants from Lisbon against competition from the Turks and Arabs. territories are not taken but only ports and strong trade with the natives. Across the world, Pedro Álvares Cabral arrives in Brazil in 1500.

    The result for Lisbon are the new products it sells to the rest of Europe, exclusively for many years beyond the product arrives African pepper, cinnamon, ginger, nutmeg, herbs, cotton and diamonds by the Career das Naus India, spices from the Moluccas, the Ming porcelain and silk from China, slaves from Mozambique, Brazil wood and Brazilian sugar. Furthermore continues the trade in fish (salted cod fishery in Newfoundland), dried fruit and wine. The other Portuguese cities such as Lagos and Port, contribute to the foreign trade only marginally, practically limited to export and import of Lisbon. The control Lisboetas still very trade Antwerp, which care fabrics for the rest of Europe. The German and Italian merchants, seeing their routes, land in the first case, to the Mediterranean seconds, largely abandoned, found large business houses in Lisbon re-exporting products worldwide for East Europe and the Middle East.

  30. #30
    History of Lisbon VI

    Lisbon, the Lady of the Seas (Continuation)

    Lisbon is the market for luxury tastes of elites across Europe: Venice and Genoa up and ruin England and the Netherlands are obliged to imitate the Portuguese to halt the loss of foreign exchange. The Lisboetas control for several decades all trade from Japan to Ceuta. The city earns fame that comes myth, and in the sixteenth century is undoubtedly the richest city in the whole world. For her flock traders from across Europe, in addition to large numbers African slaves and even some Indian, Chinese and even Japanese and Brazilian Indians. In the time of King Manuel I, on the streets of Lisbon feasts are made with parades of lions, elephants, rhinos, camels and other animals not seen in Europe since the time of the Roman Circus. A rhinoceros and an elephant arriving even being offered to Pope Leo X (see Castle If). In Europe the myth of Lisbon and its discoveries is so great that when Thomas More invents its island of Utopia, try to give it credibility by saying that the Portuguese were to discover it.

    To organize all private trade and collect taxes, are created in the capital of the great sixteenth century Portuguese trading houses: the House of Mina, the House of Arguin, the House of Slaves, the House of Flanders (Netherlands) and the famous house of India. The big profits are used in the construction of other buildings: are this century Jeronimos Monastery and Belem Tower in New Manueline style (which evokes trade overseas), the Forte de São Lourenço Bugoi an island in the Tagus, Palace Square, the new and imposing Royal Palace (destroyed in 1755) and Arsenal military all built by the Sea (of straw), and even the Royal Hospital de Todos-os-Santos, and numerous private palaces and manor houses. The impetus for paving the streets with geometric shapes and designs formed by cubes of white limestone and black basalt (a cobblestone) was initiated at the time a luxury that other European cities could not afford. The city expanded to reach almost 200,000 inhabitants, being built Bairro Alto, initially known as Vila Nova Andrades in honor of the rich bourgeois Galicians who settled there, and that quickly becomes the richest neighborhood in town. It opened in 1552 at the Flea Market, which still functions today in the same location.

    To organize all private trade and collect taxes, are created in the capital of the great sixteenth century Portuguese trading houses: the House of Mina, the House of Arguin, the House of Slaves, the House of Flanders (Netherlands) and the famous House of India. The big profits are used in the construction of other buildings: are this century Jeronimos Monastery and Belem Tower in New Manueline style (which evokes trade overseas), the Forte de São Lourenço Bugoi an island in the Tagus, Palace Square, the new and imposing Royal Palace (destroyed in 1755) and Arsenal military all built by the Sea (the straw), and even the Royal Hospital de Todos-os-Santos, and numerous private palaces and manor houses. The impetus for paving the streets with geometric shapes and designs formed by cubes of white limestone and black basalt (a cobblestone) was initiated at the time a luxury that other European cities could not afford. The city expanded to reach almost 200,000 inhabitants, being built Bairro Alto, initially known as Vila Nova Andrades in honor of the rich bourgeois Galicians who settled there, and that quickly becomes the richest neighborhood in town. It opened in 1552 at the Flea Market, which still functions today in the same local.Culturalmente lives in Lisbon in the sixteenth century the golden generation of Portuguese Science and Letters: the humanist among scientists Damiao de Gois (friend of Erasmus and Luther) the mathematician Pedro Nunes, the physician and botanist Garcia da Orta and Duarte Pacheco Pereira; among writers Luís de Camões, Bernardim Ribeiro, Gil Vicente and others. Isaac Abravanel, one of the greatest philosophers Hebrews, is appointed Treasurer of the King

    Socially benefit all classes. The nobles of the city administration and the bourgeois Real are the most benefited, but even the people living with unattainable luxuries for the English, French or German contemporaries. The heavy work required is done by African slaves and the Galicians. The first are sold in Pillory Square, separated families, and work all day without pay, subject to some brutal treatment. The latter certainly made up for the trip to face miserable conditions of rural Spain, and the virtually identical language facilitated integration.

    The Jews always include some poor and others who are among the most educated and wealthy merchants, and financial literate city. The first book printed in Lisbon was the comments about the Pentateuch of Moses ben Nahman, a book in Hebrew, published by Eliezer Toledano in 1489. In 1496 the Spaniards expel the Jews from its territory, animated by the spirit of a fundamentalist Christian Monarchy exclusively. Many come to Lisbon, probably having doubled its population (after the expulsion would be one-fifth of Lisboetas or even more). In exchange for a royal wedding, the Catholic kings of Castile and Aragon ask Manuel I of Portugal to do the same, which takes place in 1497. Acknowledging the central importance of the Jews in the city's prosperity, Dom Manuel decrees that all Jews to convert to Christianity, was forced to expel those who refuse only, not before the expropriation of their property. [8] For many years these new Christians practicing Judaism in secret or openly and despite riots and violence against them (how many children are torn from their parents and given to Christian families who treat them like slaves) are tolerated until the establishment of the Inquisition in Portugal, many years later. The result is the rise of the New Christian social temporarily, without the limitation of being Jewish, progress to the highest office of the court. Again the old elites are descendants of the ancient aristocracy of Asturias and Galicia (the nobles of Portucale) that create problems for the social ascent of Jews, often better educated and more skilled than the first. Ill-telling of the Christian Old culminates in the massacre of Christian-New in 1506 prompted by the Priors of the smaller churches in which some 3,000 people have been killed. As a result of the conflict, the king is persuaded by the territorial nobles to introduce the Inquisition (which only takes place in 1531 during the reign of his son and successor King John III |) and legal limitations to all descendants of New Christians ( similar to the old against the Jews), which prevent them from threatening the senior positions of the state of the Aristocracy Old Christians. The first auto-da-fe (death of heretics at the stake) is held at the Palace Square in 1540. Besides the Inquisition other problems arise. In 1569 there is the great Plague of London, which has a third of the population died.

    The inquisition on fire kills many New Christians but expropriating the property and wealth of many others. Many merchants are Christian-old also expropriated after an anonymous tip false, that the inquisitors accept as valid as the riches they revert to the condemned. On the other hand few merchants would not have New Christian ancestry, due to marriages common among children of burghers who were partners in major companies. The Inquisition thus becomes an instrument of social control in the possession of the former Old Christians against almost all merchants Lisboetas, finally restoring to them the supremacy long lost.

    It is in this climate of intolerance and persecution, in which the profits of the risks and the genius of successful merchants is undone by jealousy of the big landowners (who earn much less), that the prosperity of Lisbon is destroyed. The old liberal climate conducive to trade disappears and is replaced by a fanatical Catholic conservatism and absolute. The elites of the country requires the blood pure and ancient Old Christian, ie North. Many merchants fleeing to England or the Netherlands where they settle spreading the knowledge of the Portuguese naval and cartographic. Lisbon is taken by the feudal mentality of the great nobles, merchants and Portuguese, unconditional stability, security, support and credit due to the persecutions of the Inquisition, are unable to compete with the English and Dutch merchants (many of them of Portuguese origin) they rob the markets of India, the East Indies and China. In its place elites Portucale convince the feeble King, D. Sebastian turned to the conquest of a territorial empire, with more land and revenues for Noble, North Africa, enabling them to maintain economic supremacy compared to merchants. After the disaster of military Alcazarquivir in 1578, the Aristocrats gather up arms once more to their like-minded counterparts Castilians. This time successful, in 1580 the Spanish King Philip II of Spain is declared Don King Philip I of Portugal, after defeating the candidate of the weakened merchants, the Prior of Crato, Dom António (which was new and more liberal Christian, son of Jewish mother). Philippe full well the ambition of his father Habsburg King Carlos I of Spain also Emperor Charles V of the Holy Roman Empire (Germany), and Lord of most of Italy and the Netherlands famously claimed that If I were King of Lisbon, would be in soon King of the World.


    Filipino Domain and The Gold of Brazil for tomorrow on Lisbon History VII

    and sorry for my bad English

  31. #31
    Lisbon History VII

    Filipino Domain


    Philip I of Portugal, the first Portuguese Habsburg, is thus the first king of Hispania. Although since 1492 the Catholic monarchs Isabella I of Castile and Ferdinand II of Aragon have dominated what is now Spain, the title of King of the Spains was initially used to when Philip II conquered Portugal and so, in fact, all the Spains.

    Philip I initially attempts to reconcile the interests of the nobility in acquiring more territories in Europe, the Clergy in defeating the Protestants and the bourgeoisie to eliminate competition and piracy of English and Dutch. All boats capable of military action Lisbon, Seville and Barcelona are brought together in Armada that is sent against England. Due to a major storm and the expertise of British Admirals, the fleet is destroyed. This defeat finally converts the King of Nobility territorial interests. Large armies (the Thirds) mercenaries, paid by merchants and aristocrats controlled by large de sangre pure-Old Christian, as the Duke of Alba, are trained and cross Europe to take the cities and fertile lands of the Netherlands for the benefit Calvinists Nobility of that.

    Meanwhile the Dutch and English dominate the seas, and unable to win the Spanish territorial empires of Mexico and Peru, concentrate on taking the factories, ports and coastal colonies of the Portuguese, who traffic in Lisbon. Ports are taken northeastern Brazil, Luanda in Angola, ports of East Africa, the Cape of Good Hope, Ceylon, Malacca and the Moluccas, the island of Taiwan, trade license in Japan and other ports.

    Lisbon, with its merchants already under persecution of the Inquisition (which expropriava the crypto-Jews and even genuine Christians), lost much of its fleet in the disaster of the Armada and they paid very high taxes to support the armies of the Spanish nobles in Europe , now loses most of its ports and products and is finally and irreversibly ruined, rapidly losing importance. In 1598 the catastrophe is deepened by an earthquake and pestilence. Finally Philip II of Portugal becomes exclusively Philip III of Spain and then your only son Philip IV of Spain when, on the advice of the Castilian nobility and the Portuguese territorial aquisciência of Nobles, absorbs the United Kingdom of Portugal from Spain. Lisbon, the great cosmopolitan city is now a provincial town without any influence with the great Spanish thoroughbred, then the governing conservative and fundamentalist Catholic Madrid. At this time the city loses population and economic activity, reducing the population to less than 150,000.

    The buildings of this period fall into two categories: defenses against pirates from the north, and the religious buildings that appeal to loyalty to universal Catholic monarchy sought by the King were built Torreão a massive building near the Palace Square, which has not survived the 1755 earthquake, the Convento de São Vicente de Fora, new walls with new provisions according to the military engineering of the era, such as the Tower Bugoi an island in the Sea of ??Silver, and fortifications in Cascais, and in Setúbal margin The South English and Dutch pirates, such as Francis Drake, make several attacks on some squares Portuguese, but do not dare to attack Lisbon.

    With the economic decline and unemployment increases much misery and crime. The Spanish authorities are obliged to introduce a kind of police force, the sergeants who patrol the streets and control street crime, fights, gambling and witchcraft. According to some chronicles of the time, the murder rate in the early seventeenth century would be even higher, a city of 150,000 people, as today in Lisbon with 2,500,000.

    The problems in the city for trade increase when the Catalans, as a people merchant of Lisbon, also oppressed by taxes Castilian, revolt in 1636. Is Portugal to Madrid comes require men and funds to defeat the Catalans in an attempt to use the de Portugal against Catalonia.

    It is then that the merchants of the city are allied to small and middle nobility. They try to convince the Duke of Braganza, Dom João, to accept the throne, but this, like the rest High Nobility, is enjoyed by Madrid and only the prospect of becoming the King finally convinces. The conspirators beset the Governor's Palace, hailing the new King John IV, initially with the support of Cardinal Richelieu of France, and then resumed the old alliance with England.

    The gold of Brazil

    The Lisbon post-Restoration is a city increasingly dominated by Catholic religious orders. More than 40 monasteries are founded in the city in addition to the 30 existing ones. The second and third sons who receive no inheritance from his father, and before that was engaged in trade and businesses overseas, now take refuge in religious orders and live at the expense of almsgiving.

    The situation of economic ruin is finally resolved, not by successful projects, but by colonial exploitation: Gold is discovered in Brazil, the current state of Minas Gerais. The Portuguese state tax charges as one-fifth of the gold mined, which begins to arrive in Lisbon in 1699 and whose revenues come quickly to several tons per year (more than 15 tons after 1730), representing almost the entire state budget.

    With gold, typical works of social forces in power, the clergy and the aristocracy, are built in the new style of the Counter-Reformation, the Baroque, including the National Pantheon (or Church of Santa Engracia), several palaces and some works useful, as the Aqueduct of the Free Waters (1720).

    In contrast to the wealth of the elites, the people live in poverty. The population grows with the need for hand labor for construction, to 185,000. This period are the first descriptions of Lisbon as a city dirty and degraded, only two centuries after it was known as the most prosperous and cosmopolitan Europe.

    This period ends on 1 November 1755, All Saints Day, which occurs in the great Lisbon earthquake. At nine hours and forty minutes the earth begins to shake, and after about a minute, returns to calm, followed by new tremor. The population rushes to the squares with space along the river Tagus, to die drowned by the huge tsunami that comes from the Atlantic. After the earthquake, Lisbon is in ruins. The great Torreão Real, Casa de Indias, the Convento do Carmo, the Court of the Inquisition, the Hospital de Todos-os-Santos are destroyed. Of the 20,000 houses of the lower classes, less solid construction, 17,000 are destroyed. Survive the rich Bairro Alto, some solid stone buildings and few other areas. Here are looting and a huge fire. In the end, of 180,000 inhabitants, more than 35,000 have died and many others lost their entire property. Is this catastrophe that gives space to the Marquis of Pombal trying to implement reforms in Portugal scientific and liberals already used successfully in Europe, the new political and economic theories of the Enlightenment.
    Last edited by Duke of Buckingham; 03-09-2013 at 02:46 AM.

  32. #32
    I can not edit this thread, I received a blank screen every time I try to edit. As you can see I forgot the size, color and center in the beginning but it is only this thread, what is the problem?

  33. #33
    Thanks Bok. It is solved suddenly I can edit the posts again.

  34. #34
    History of Lisbon VIII

    Age of Enlightenment


    The Marquis of Pombal Sebastião José de Carvalho e Melo, Minister of War and Foreign Affairs and coming from the Lower Nobility, famously reacted to the ruins of the earthquake, have said that it was necessary to bury the dead, care for the living and build the city. An idea that will then develop in the economy and society. The Church's power is limited and their phalanx, the Jesuits, is expelled from the country. The power of the landed aristocracy conservative is brutally suppressed a series of conspiracies and counter-conspiracies, which end with the cruel execution of the family that heads the reaction, the Távora. These would have been responsible for an attack on the King Joseph I of Portugal in an effort to proclaim the conservative Duke of Aveiro King, and dismiss Pombal, although there are historians who contend that this charge will not last a farce manipulated by the Marquis himself for personal reasons. The Inquisition is abolished and the New Christians, even then being the most liberal and educated middle classes of the city and the country, are freed from their legal limitations and is finally allowed them access to high government positions, previously legal monopoly the aristocracy of "pure blood". The industry is supported dirigiste but something so strong, and established several royal factories in Lisbon and other cities, we thrive. After the period "Pombalino" for 20 new plants for every one that previously existed. Finally the various taxes and duties within Portugal, harmful to trade are eliminated. In all these purposes, Pombal relies on donations and loans from Lisbon traders and industrialists.

    In Lisbon, the Marquis, refusing the advice of some who want to move the capital to another city, ordering the reconstruction according to the new theories of urban organization, after ordering a review of the actual situation through an unprecedented population survey. It's still the income from the Brazilian colony that pays almost all the reconstruction, with over 20 million crossed. The city also receives aid from countries like England, Spain and German Hansa, filling up of shipbuilding. Most of the Portuguese nobility and aristocracy took refuge on their farms on the outskirts of Lisbon. The King settles into a makeshift wooden palace, the Royal Tent, while the new stone began to be erected in Bethlehem so still a region outside the city of Lisbon. The large volume of works happens, however, in the center of the old city, with the design of a new project for the downtown, the neighborhood hardest hit by the earthquake. This is designed by Eugenio dos Santos and Carlos Mardel and approved by the Marquis and it fits the spirit of the Enlightenment era and pragmatic: the narrow streets are replaced by wide straight streets arranged orthogonally. These would not only proper street lighting and ventilation (aeration), as aufeririam more security (patrolling, access to buildings in case of fire and to prevent the spread of fire across the street, etc.).. The buildings were also targeted to build a consistent policy, and the team set designer design of the facades, the rules of construction of the structure of buildings and developed a set of other rules for the production of a housing able to cope better one possible earthquake, as well as redesigning the social structure of the city of Lisbon, giving it a new slant to the commercial city. The innovative structure selected consisted of a wooden skeleton (a Pombaline cage), a rectangular grid with locks its diagonals (cross Sto. Andre) where it is sought that the flexibility to adapt the timber to the overhead caused by the earthquake without the structure broke. This wooden structure would be based on a foundation of masonry (which correspond to the first floor of the dwelling, for shops, offices and warehouses) with arches barrel vault, which would give weight to the set. All buildings in the area of ​​Lower assentariam a pine pilings that would give more strength to the sandy soil of Lower and ensure the effective transfer of the weight of the buildings to the ground without it surrendered. The new buildings were rental horizontal, being prioritized in importance and quality of its proximity to the street (usually the top floor has lower ceilings, balconies common, smaller windows, smaller divisions, etc.. And be dedicated to families with fewer possessions ). All buildings have walls of masonry fire walls to separate them from each other. The standardization of facades, windows, doors, tiles simple geometric patterns in the hall, etc.. permit the acceleration of the construction process through the serial production of these elements out of the site. The entire set has proportions and classical rules of composition, using the golden ratio. The structuring of the new town center would be the Rua Augusta that would connect the northern limit of the city, Rossio, and the southern limit, the Palace Square, where a provision of monumental buildings, the Rua Augusta Arch, a monument to the king and the Tagus close the square, contribute to the design of what is intended to be the new heart of the commercial activity of the rebuilt city of Lisbon. The buildings of the Palace Square would be used for installation of warehouses and large business houses would be expected to return to surface and animate the plaza, but after several years of abandonment were eventually occupied by ministries, courts, Arsenal Navy, Customs Purse and, in the reign of King Maria I.

    At the north end, parallel to Rossio, was designed a new market, which ultimately never be built, the square having been originally known as Square New or Herb, now called Praça da Figueira.

    Unlike the wishes and hopes of the Marquis of Pombal and his team rebuild the city takes much longer than expected, having just completed its reconstruction in 1806. To this is due in large part to poor financial capacity of the bourgeoisie of a city in crisis. After all, and in the renewal policy of the Portuguese economy, signs are emerging slowly developing. Moderately until the city grows to 250,000 inhabitants in all geographical directions, occupying the new quarters of the Star, Mouse, then the new industrial center of the city polarized around the recent source of supply of water brought by aqueduct (new ceramic factories), Alcantara, Help, Firefighters, and Amoreiras (where were the new factories Silk, whose worms are fed the leaves of the tree). The Prime Minister tries in every way to encourage the middle classes, who saw it as essential to the country's development and progress. Are formed early Luso-cafes owned by Italians: some survive today such time as Martinho da Arcada in the Palace Square, the Nicola on Rossio, whose owner Liberal illuminated the facade after each victory progressive politics, among others. Surge of the habit among the bourgeois social soirees richest, with the unprecedented participation of women in the conservative Nobility is not participating. It thus appears that in Lisbon again the middle class bourgeois self, composed of New Christians and Old Christians from the People, the origin of political movements by Liberalism and the Republic, which manifest themselves in the new capital of Newspapers.

    Pombal would be fired after the death of Don José, and the ascension to the throne of very religious Dona Maria I of Portugal, whose major contribution was the Basilica da Estrela. Advised by Clergy and Nobles by conservatives, and dismiss the prime minister sought to limit and even reverse some of its progressive reforms, in a movement called the Viradeira. It follows the deterioration of economic conditions had improved that much time Pombalino, and budgetary problems. To deal with the crime and misery growing again, is created under the leadership of Police Diogo Pina Manique in 1780. Renova is political persecution this time in the form secular: Police chases, arrests, torture and expelled all progressives: Freemasons, liberals and Jacobins; newspapers are subject to censorship; many works of philosophers or liberal Protestants prohibited and cafes watched by plainclothes policemen. The culture is controlled and all manifestations are less Catholic outlawed, including the ancient Carnival. Only Theatre is stimulated with the construction in 1793 of the Teatro São Carlos in Chiado, which replaces the Opera destroyed during the earthquake. It is, however, financed by private enterprise.


    Tomorrow Civil War: Liberals and Conservatives From the American revolution and Napoleon Bonaparte to the first world war.

  35. #35
    Atacama Large Millimeter Array


    Organisation Multi-national
    Location Llano de Chajnantor Observatory
    Atacama Desert, Chile
    Coordinates 23°01′9.42″S 67°45′11.44″W
    Altitude 5,058.7 m (16597 ft)
    Telescope style at least 50 identical 12 m reflectors connected by fiber-optic cables
    Website Official ALMA site



    The Atacama Large Millimeter/sub-millimeter Array (ALMA, Spanish and Portuguese word for "soul") is an array of radio telescopes in the Atacama desert of northern Chile. Since a high and dry site is crucial to millimeter wavelength operations, the array is being constructed on the Chajnantor plateau at 5000 metres altitude. Consisting of 66 12-meter and 7-meter diameter radio telescopes observing at millimeter and sub-millimeter wavelengths, ALMA is expected to provide insight on star birth during the early universe and detailed imaging of local star and planet formation.

    ALMA is an international partnership between Europe, the United States, Canada, East Asia and the Republic of Chile. Costing more than a billion US dollars, it is the most expensive ground-based telescope currently under construction. ALMA began scientific observations in the second half of 2011 and the first images were released to the press on 3 October 2011. The project is scheduled to be fully operational by March 2013.

    March 13th will mark the inauguration of the ALMA Telescope in northern Chile. And EarthSky will be covering the event live and on site.

    EarthSky was recently selected to attend the inauguration of the world’s most powerful telescope as part of a small group of journalists and media representatives. Stay updated through Facebook and on our website.

    Inauguration link: http://www.almaobservatory.org/inauguration/

    Learn about ALMA in: http://earthsky.org/space/worlds-big...alma-telescope

  36. #36
    History of Lisbon IX

    Civil War: Liberals and Conservatives


    At the end of the eighteenth century, with the American Revolution of 1776, gain weight liberal ideas throughout Europe. In France the Revolution Pops in 1789. In Lisbon liberals rejoice in the defeat of the French aristocracy. Quickly radicalized the Revolution in Paris, falling in the hands of the extreme left and the centrist Napoleon Bonaparte is called to power by Bourgeoisie scared, eventually self nominate Emperor. His policy in Europe is the continental block, ie the prohibition of trade with England. Ally of this country, Portugal refused Napoleon sent Junot at the head of a large army to conquer the country.

    Junot comes in Lisbon on November 30, 1807. The Portuguese Royal Family, aristocracy and high clergy had fled the day before to Brazil. Junot is initially well received by the people of Lisbon and sets up the Palace of Queluz. New ideas are discussed by the liberal bourgeoisie of Lisbon with French officers in the cafes of the city, in particular in Nicola Rossio cafe, which establishes the French headquarters. Everyone expects the further reforms of the Marquis of Pombal, but Junot not want to stimulate radical ideas and does nothing. Portugal is a country once considered the divide: Lisbon would be directly incorporated into the French Empire, while the old Portucale would be resurrected in the Kingdom of Northern Lusitania.

    The lack of reforms and the violent behavior of the French soldiers leads ultimately to the Supreme Join Government asking for the help of England. It is sent an expeditionary force led by Beresford and Wellesley, and the French outnumbered, are forced to retire at the end of 1808 coming in simultaneously, following a withdrawal agreement, the British in the city where they settle in Arroios. Lisbon suffered economically with the opening of the ports of Brazil to England. The British receive a D. John VI, residing in Rio de Janeiro, government control of the city and country, who run like a colony. The bourgeois party in France are run. Are then constructed defenses in access to capital in Torres Vedras, where from the time of the Romans ended the territory of Lisbon. There is defeated and forced to withdraw the new French invasion force led by André Masséna, in 1811. It would leave the English and some Portuguese under General Wellington to liberate Spain. Napoleon is finally defeated in 1815.

    With the Lisbon bourgeois oppression under the British, are the bourgeois of Porto taking control of the city and rebel against British colonialism and the Liberalism in 1820, followed by Lisbon to joining expelling the British governors in a coup. The Courts are convened by the Liberals and promulgated a constitution is 1822, a Charter of Rights, and the end of the privileges of the nobility and clergy. The king's son, D. Miguel de Portugal heads the Conservative Reactionaries absolutists, and starts the Civil War, against the forces of the Revolutionary Liberal Constitutionalists his brother Emperor Pedro I of Brazil, after Pedro IV of Portugal. Is Dom Pedro who wins the war in 1834, but the Constitution is enacted more conservative than expected. However it presents some (few) liberal reforms such as the abolition of the religious orders, and the expropriation of many goods of the Catholic Church, which had supported the Miguelistas. Disillusioned with Don Pedro, no new conspiracy in Lisbon in the year 1836, the Setembristas (petty bourgeoisie and literati) require that the Constitution of 1822, and then the opposite direction, two coups of absolutists, in 1836 and 1837. The country is divided into two radical groups that refuse converse with one another. In this environment of chaos, the great powers of the U.S. plan to divide the colonies and provinces.

    In the period of Liberal government (1820-1842) is marked by wars and guerrilla yet are introduced various reforms and developments. It finally implemented the old project of lighting the city, existing in many private homes of the bourgeoisie, between the years 1823 and 1837. Initially with oil lamps, but later with fish oil, will be replaced by gas lamps in 1848. Also constructed is a new network of roads, and are introduced steamships connecting Lisbon to Porto by the sea. Plans are made to launch the railways, but the war with the Conservatives not allow it, and the first section, between Lisbon and Uploaded only be opened in 1856.

    This period is marked by the loss of some economic viability of Lisbon. The Brazil becomes independent and its products and gold no longer flow to the Capital. During the Cabralismo noble titles are assigned to many big bourgeois, for compromise, with some success, with the Conservative party. After his loss of earnings from Brazil dependence on state becomes attractive and leisure class fears competition and supports the artificial and rigid social divisions. It is at this time that multiply the Barons and Viscounts off of landed property, many hereditary but many others are restricted to the life of the beneficiary, receiving rents from the state or engaged in corrupt politics of the time. The great territorial aristocracy gains the habit of spending the winter in Lisbon, heading for its solar only in summer however is the people who suffer most from the wars and the loss of Brazil: a city stagnates and loses importance and the fifth most populous Europe moves to the tenth and continues to descend. The jobs become more precarious and poverty increases again.


    Tomorrow Lisbon between Europe and Africa. American, Africa and Europe connections with Lisbon.

  37. #37
    History of Lisbon X

    Lisbon between Europe and Africa


    After finishing the wars and conflicts between conservatives and liberals, Lisbon, having lost the gold and monopoly of products from Brazil, the source of all their wealth since the end of the sixteenth century was in a desperate economic situation. In northern Europe, the nations began industrialization, and enriched with the trade of the Americas (England would dominate the Brazilian market) and Asia. The delay of Portugal seemed irreversible.

    Unable to definitely defeat the Liberals, and frightened by the economic disaster that conservative policies had led Portugal since the sixteenth century, in contrast to the success of liberal England, France and the Netherlands, the Conservatives who dominated the country and the capital ceded partially . Limited reforms would be allowed in exchange for keeping the spirit Catholic, rural, conservative and political power be kept in the hands of large landowners. Elections would be held but only by those qualified by hefty property. The patronage of the State would be shared with the new class and were granted titles to the big bourgeois and capitalist. However remained privileges and state subsidies to the ruling classes, and industrialization would be limited to these interests.

    In this period Lisbon is poor and dirty when compared to cities of northern Europe. Almost all its commercial importance comes down to maintaining monopoly on the products of the Portuguese colonies, especially Angola and Mozambique. The country itself is described in London, Paris and Berlin as an extension of North Africa, ie a territory unable to govern themselves. Begin the first emigrations no longer govern and direct to other lands, but rather to work from the lowest social scale: leave for Brazil many thousands of poor people of Lisbon. Given the poverty and backwardness of most of the country arises in Lisbon a very rich upper class who, as if blind, spends and behaves as if it belonged to the elite of northern Europe, while ruling a country rural and backward, bowed by protectionism economic, lack of education and health care provided by the state. With decreasing importance of land as a factor of wealth, nobility and gentry territorial orbit the Royal Court, luxuriously living allowances and salaries distributed through this with the taxes collected to the poor. Establishes a regime "of mild manners," where cease the persecution, but also reform, and corruption is routine and almost always go unpunished.

    Among the inert and corrupt rulers, there are some who best understand the need for change. Fontes Pereira de Melo is the minister who fight for more economic liberalization and industrialization. Several economic and industrial developments are encouraged.

    A network of railways is built, connecting Lisbon to Porto and involved cities, from the two new train stations, the station of Santa Apolonia and Rossio Station. The electric light is deployed in 1878, replacing gas lighting. In urban terms, are created the first master plans. It is necessary to change the image of dirty capital that shocks visitors from northern Europe. The inhabitants are then encouraged to use tiles or paint the facades color pink, according to municipal guidelines (still dominate the center of town with many buildings rose tiles of this period). Also created are the first systems plumbing, sewage and water treatment, responding to cholera attacks that kill thousands. Using the new proletariat miserable, you can now recalcetar the old and new routes (including Rossio) as had been done on a smaller scale in the sixteenth century, with the old technique of cobblestone. Other important innovations are the cars "Americans" (collective passenger vehicles on rails pulled by horses), introduced in 1873 (in 1901 would be replaced by electric, which still exist today), lifts (funiculars and cable worm) that are installed in several of the hills after 1880.

    The cultural and commercial center of the city then passes to the Chiado. With the old streets of the already occupied, the owners of new stores and clubs set up on the hill attached, which quickly turns. Here are founded the Club, Literary Guild as the famous stories of Eca de Queiroz, and frequented by Almeida Garrett, Ramalho Ortigão, Guerra Junqueiro, Alexandre Oliveira Martins and Herculano. Settle even clothing stores of Paris fashions and other luxury goods, style department stores Harrods of London or Paris from Galeries Lafayette and new Luso-Italian cafes, as Tavares and Cafe Chiado.

    New buildings and roads open their new neighborhoods north of Lisbon, stimulated by the city backed by the bourgeoisie. In 1878 the Public Road is demolished and replaced in 1886 by the new Liberty Avenue, designed by Ressano Garcia. The Avenue has more than one kilometer and extends through farmland, anticipating urban sprawl. It is created from it throughout the urban central axis of the city (now expanding again in 2005). At the top of the avenue is built to Marques de Pombal Square, which run the new avenues of New Lisbon. New Avenues build these mansions elites of Lisbon, near the new public buildings such as the Liceu Camões (1907) and Alfredo da Costa Maternity (1909). The most important of these is the Avenida Fontes Pereira de Melo, northeast, ending in the new Praça Duque de Saldanha. Hence part to another great avenue, but today the Republic of Ressano Garcia initially. In the vicinity of this is the Campo Grande (then a field and not a Garden) and the new bullring Campo Pequeno, finished in 1892 in a style neomourisco. New neighborhoods are built nearby to plans similar to Pombaline: the neighborhood of Campo de Ourique westward and eastward of Estefania. Along the neighborhood's great new Estefania is built Dona Amelia Avenue (now Avenida Almirante Reis), linking it to the Martim Moniz. All these new buildings tranformam the city. The new geographical center of Lisbon's Baixa and the Marquis is just the location of the big stores. To the east lay up small middle class and the people, while to the west the higher middle classes and the wealthy bourgeoisie.

    Culturally this is the period where bullfighting and fado change into a popular entertainment. To them we can joins the popular theater or musical theater (invented in Paris) that with the old and erudite comedies and dramas, dispute the new theaters of the capital. An entertainment typically Portuguese this time is the Oratory, where actors corrupt the ancient art of Father António Vieira sung in arguments, flowery and almost always superficial vying with prizes. Arise even the first large public gardens, imitating London's Hyde Park and the gardens of the German cities: the first is the Jardim da Estrela, where the bourgeois wandering on Saturdays and Sundays.

    Occasionally the upper classes are now a mixture of noble conservatives who are reluctantly forced to accept some ideas and bourgeois liberals graduates who adhere to many conservative ideas. To them join the Brazilians, the poor and poorly educated immigrants who had grown rich in Brazil and returned to the city in craving acceptance in high social circles. Lisbon is the industrial center of the country (although its industrialization be minimal compared to England or Germany). The poorer classes Lisbon grow exponentially with the arrival of the first proletarians who work in the new factories. They often live in slums and degraded, where raging cholera and other diseases, working all day just to have enough to eat.

    Liberals betrayed the middle class, whose taxes pay for the luxuries of the upper classes without receiving anything in return, renew into a new more radical liberal movement that threatens not only the old landowners but also the new barons and viscounts dependent of the capitalist State.

    The alliance between the workers and the more educated middle classes comes the new Radical Liberalism, better known as Republicanism because of his opposition to the alliance of former Liberal Monarchist now dependent on the state (the bourgeois titrated) and Conservatives (old aristocracy) Monarchists: large capitalists, landowners and dependents of the court.


    Tomorrow The Revolution of 1910. The period of the First Republic.

  38. #38
    History of Lisbon XI

    The Revolution of 1910


    With the emergence of compromise between the rightmost Liberals and conservatives over moderates, who spoke on Constitutional Monarchy, the lack of development and reforms still outstanding in the country led to more leftist wing or radical Liberals, constituted mainly by classes averages to recast its political objectives. Thus was born the Republican Party that advocated radical liberal reforms such as universal suffrage, the end of privileges to the Catholic Church and rents to the nobles, and above all the overthrow of a political elite increasingly discredited by corruption and incompetence. The country is indebted and is increasingly dependent on the Northern Countries. A catharses episode was undoubtedly the humiliation against the English Ultimatum, by an allied nation ( Pink Map crisis http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pink_Map ).

    The conditions that made possible the rise to the power of the Republicans were mostly economic. In the late nineteenth century, there was a bit slow and vigorous industrialization in Portugal, but it was concentrated more than enough in Lisbon. Despite the country's people continue rural and mostly Catholic, and supporting the King and the Church, a new class is born in Lisbon (and to a lesser degree in Porto and Beira) sharing most progressive ideas: the proletariat. The large industry Lisbon is then the manufacture of tobacco, but there are also factories of textiles, glass, rubber and preserves, among many others. In total, at the end of the nineteenth century there would be many tens of thousands of workers in industries a total population of over 300,000 people. The first "industrial zones" are neighborhoods of Lisbon (Alcantara, Bom Successo and Santo Amaro) thanks to electricity production coming from Tagus Central. The living conditions for the new popular class of Lisbon are miserable. Coming in large numbers from rural areas with nothing settled in large slums on the outskirts of the city, and it is common for children to work long hours in factories. Others come in large groups from the same village, and settle in the abandoned fields in nuclei enclosed within the city, known for patios or backyards (very common in Grace). There were the first workers' districts, whose houses are built at minimal cost for entrepreneurs to attract work-power.

    Then come the first unions, many of which are affiliated with anarchists. Instead of joining the new Marxist parties in other European countries, other workers gather around the middle classes and professionals (doctors and lawyers) of the Republican Party. As a result, the Party, very weak in the north of the country (with the exception of Porto), gained increasing influence in the capital. Despite championing the property and the free market, the Republicans promise better working conditions and social measures. However the upper classes still live in a society apart, and are not able to respond to new demands except with repression. The outcome measures are increasingly violent.

    Alarmed elites impose the dictatorship in 1907 with João Franco, but it is too late. In 1908 the royal family suffers an attack that killed the King Don Carlos and Crowned Prince of Portugal, probably in an action performed by anarchists (who attack public figures in this period in Europe). In 1909 the workers of Lisbon organized extensive strikes. In 1910 Lisbon revolt finally. The city's population form barricades in the streets and are distributed weapons. The armies ordered to repress the revolution are dismembered by defections. The rest of the country follows the capital and accepted the republican regime then proclaimed, although still deeply rural, Catholic and conservative. It is proclaimed the First Republic.

    Liberal measures are enacted: supporting social workers, with the creation of the welfare state, the right to strike, ending the privileges of the Church and nobility, right to divorce. Taxes are modified, a model that was based on contributions from workers and middle classes, to one that taxed the rich more.


    Tomorrow The Republic. The last period and post about Lisbon.

  39. #39
    Mount Tambora 1815 eruption

    Mount Tambora experienced several centuries of inactive dormancy before 1815, as the result of the gradual cooling of hydrous magma in a closed magma chamber. Inside the chamber at depths between 1.5–4.5 km (0.93–2.8 mi), the exsolution of a high-pressure fluid magma formed during cooling and crystallisation of the magma. Overpressure of the chamber of about 4,000–5,000 bar (58,000–73,000 psi) was generated, and the temperature ranged from 700–850 °C (1292–1562 °F). In 1812, the caldera began to rumble and generated a dark cloud.

    On 5 April 1815, a moderate-sized eruption occurred, followed by thunderous detonation sounds, heard in Makassar on Sulawesi, 380 km (240 mi) away, Batavia (now Jakarta) on Java 1,260 km (780 mi) away, and Ternate on the Molucca Islands 1,400 km (870 mi) away. On the morning of 6 April, volcanic ash began to fall in East Java with faint detonation sounds lasting until 10 April. What was first thought to be sound of firing guns was heard on 10 April on Sumatra island more than 2,600 km (1,600 mi) away.

    At about 7 p.m. on 10 April, the eruptions intensified. Three columns of flame rose up and merged. The whole mountain was turned into a flowing mass of "liquid fire". Pumice stones of up to 20 cm (7.9 in) in diameter started to rain down at approximately 8 p.m., followed by ash at around 9–10 p.m. Pyroclastic flows cascaded down the mountain to the sea on all sides of the peninsula, wiping out the village of Tambora. Loud explosions were heard until the next evening, 11 April. The ash veil had spread as far as West Java and South Sulawesi. A "nitrous" odour was noticeable in Batavia and heavy tephra-tinged rain fell, finally receding between 11 and 17 April.

    The explosion is estimated to have been VEI 7. It had roughly four times the energy of the 1883 Krakatoa eruption, meaning that it was equivalent to an 800 Mt (3.3×1012 MJ) explosion. An estimated 160 km3 (38 cu mi) of pyroclastic trachyandesite was ejected, weighing approximately 1.4e14 kg (3.1×1014 lb) (see above). This has left a caldera measuring 6–7 km (3.7–4.3 mi) across and 600–700 m (2,000–2,300 ft) deep. The density of fallen ash in Makassar was 636 kg/m² (130.3 lb/sq ft). Before the explosion, Mount Tambora was approximately 4,300 m (14,100 ft) high, one of the tallest peaks in the Indonesian archipelago. After the explosion, it now measures only 2,851 m (9,354 ft).

    The 1815 Tambora eruption is the largest observed eruption in recorded history. The explosion was heard 2,600 km (1,600 mi) away, and ash fell at least 1,300 km (810 mi) away. Pitch darkness was observed as far away as 600 km (370 mi) from the mountain summit for up to two days. Pyroclastic flows spread at least 20 km (12 mi) from the summit. Due to the eruption, Indonesia's islands were struck by tsunami waves reaching a height of up to 4 m (13 ft).


    Katyn massacre

    The Katyn massacre, also known as the Katyn Forest massacre (Polish: zbrodnia katyńska, mord katyński, 'Katyń crime'; Russian: Катынский расстрел Katynskij ra'sstrel 'Katyn shooting'), was a mass execution of Polish nationals carried out by the People's Commissariat for Internal Affairs (NKVD), the Soviet secret police, in April and May 1940. The massacre was prompted by Lavrentiy Beria's proposal to execute all members of the Polish Officer Corps, dated 5 March 1940. This official document was approved and signed by the Soviet Politburo, including its leader, Joseph Stalin. The number of victims is estimated at about 22,000, with 21,768 being a lower bound. The victims were murdered in the Katyn Forest in Russia, the Kalinin and Kharkiv prisons and elsewhere. Of the total killed, about 8,000 were officers taken prisoner during the 1939 Soviet invasion of Poland, another 6,000 were police officers, with the rest being Polish intelligentsia arrested for allegedly being "intelligence agents, gendarmes, landowners, saboteurs, factory owners, lawyers, officials and priests."

    The term "Katyn massacre" originally referred specifically to the massacre at Katyn Forest, near the villages of Katyn and Gnezdovo (approximately 19 kilometers/12 miles west of Smolensk, Russia), of Polish military officers in the Kozelsk prisoner-of-war camp. This was the largest of several simultaneous executions of prisoners of war. Other executions occurred at the geographically distant Starobelsk and Ostashkov camps, at the NKVD headquarters in Smolensk, and at prisons in Kalinin (Tver), Kharkiv, Moscow, and other Soviet cities. Still more executions took place at various locations in Belarus and Western Ukraine, based on special lists of Polish prisoners, prepared by the NKVD specifically for those regions. The modern Polish investigation of the killings covered not only the massacre at Katyn forest, but also the other mass murders mentioned above. Polish organisations, such as the Katyn Committee and the Federation of Katyn Families, consider the victims murdered at the locations other than Katyn as part of the overall massacre.

    The government of Nazi Germany announced the discovery of mass graves in the Katyn Forest in 1943. When the London-based Polish government-in-exile asked for an investigation by the International Red Cross, Stalin immediately severed diplomatic relations with it. The Soviet Union claimed the victims had been murdered by the Nazis, and continued to deny responsibility for the massacres until 1990, when it officially acknowledged and condemned the perpetration of the killings by the NKVD, as well as the subsequent cover-up.

    An investigation conducted by the Prosecutor General's Office of the Soviet Union (1990–1991) and the Russian Federation (1991–2004), has confirmed Soviet responsibility for the massacres. It was able to confirm the deaths of 1,803 Polish citizens but refused to classify this action as a war crime or an act of genocide. The investigation was closed on grounds that the perpetrators of the massacre were already dead, and since the Russian government would not classify the dead as victims of Stalinist repression, formal posthumous rehabilitation was ruled out. The human rights society Memorial issued a statement which declared "this termination of investigation is inadmissible" and that their confirmation of only 1,803 people killed "requires explanation because it is common knowledge that more than 14,500 prisoners were killed." In November 2010, the Russian State Duma approved a declaration blaming Stalin and other Soviet officials for having personally ordered the massacre.

  40. #40
    Ezra Pound

    Ezra Weston Loomis Pound (30 October 1885 – 1 November 1972) was an American expatriate poet and critic of the early modernist movement. His contribution to poetry began with his promotion of Imagism, a movement that called for a return to more Classical values, stressing clarity, precision and economy of language, and had an interest in verse forms such as the Japanese Haikus. His best-known works include Ripostes (1912), Hugh Selwyn Mauberley (1920) and his unfinished 120-section epic, The Cantos (1917–1969).

    Working in London and Paris in the early 20th century as foreign editor of several American literary magazines, Pound helped to discover and shape the work of contemporaries such as T. S. Eliot, James Joyce, Robert Frost and Ernest Hemingway. He was responsible for the publication in 1915 of Eliot's "The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock" and for the serialization from 1918 of Joyce's Ulysses. Hemingway wrote of him in 1925: "He defends [his friends] when they are attacked, he gets them into magazines and out of jail. ... He writes articles about them. He introduces them to wealthy women. He gets publishers to take their books. He sits up all night with them when they claim to be dying ... he advances them hospital expenses and dissuades them from suicide."

    Outraged by the loss of life during the First World War, he lost faith in England, blaming the war on usury and international capitalism. He moved to Italy in 1924, where throughout the 1930s and 1940s, to his friends' dismay, he embraced Benito Mussolini's fascism, expressed support for Adolf Hitler and wrote for publications owned by Oswald Mosley. The Italian government paid him during the Second World War to make hundreds of radio broadcasts criticizing the United States, as a result of which he was arrested for treason by American forces in Italy in 1945. He spent months in detention in a U.S. military camp in Pisa, including 25 days in a six-by-six-foot outdoor steel cage that he said triggered a mental breakdown, "when the raft broke and the waters went over me." Deemed unfit to stand trial, he was incarcerated in St. Elizabeths psychiatric hospital in Washington, D.C., for over 12 years.

    While in custody in Italy, he had begun work on sections of The Cantos that became known as The Pisan Cantos (1948), for which he was awarded the Bollingen Prize in 1949 by the Library of Congress, triggering enormous controversy. He was released from St. Elizabeths in 1958 and returned to live in Italy until his death. His political views ensure that his work remains controversial; in 1933 Time magazine called him "a cat that walks by himself, tenaciously unhousebroken and very unsafe for children." Hemingway nevertheless wrote: "The best of Pound's writing – and it is in the Cantos – will last as long as there is any literature."

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